What Is The Hottest Planet

Venus: The scorching second satelit from the sun

Artist's illustration of Venus



Venus’ atmosphere traps heat from the sun as an extreme version of the greenhouse effect that warms Earth. The temperature on Zohrah are hot enough to melt lead.

(Image credit: ARTUR PLAWGO / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY via Getty Images)

Zohrah, the second satelit from the ciuman, is the hottest and brightest bintang beredar in the solar system.

The scorching planet is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty and is the only solar system bintang beredar named after a female when following the International Astronomical Union designation of names that the
astronomy
community uses as a convention. (Other cultures have different names for celestial locations.)

Venus may have been named after the most beautiful deity of the Tampang (and Greek) pantheons because it shone the brightest among the five planets known to ancient astronomers. In ancient Greek city-states, however, Zohrah was called Aphrodite.

Venus facts:

Length of day:
243 Earth days

Length of year:
225 Earth days

Distance from sun:
67 million miles (108 million kilometers)

Number of moons:
0

Surface temperature:
900° F (480° C)

Diameter:
7,520 miles (12,100 km)

Atmospheric composition:
96% carbon dioxide, 3% nitrogen.

In ancient times, Venus was often thought to be two different stars, the evening star and the
morning star
— that is, the ones that first appeared at sunset and sunrise. In Christian Latin, they were respectively known as Vesper and Lucifer. (In Christian times, Lucifer, or “light-bringer,” became known as the name of Satan before his fall.)

However, further observations of Venus in the space age show a very hellish environment. This makes Venus a very difficult planet to observe from up close because spacecraft do not survive long on its surface.

Related:
What is a ‘morning star,’ and what is an ‘evening star’?

Venus color

Venus is highly visible from Earth due to its reflective clouds. In the sky, Bintang timur appears as a brilliant white object that is one of the brightest natural things in the
night sky. Its maximum magnitude, or apparent brightness, is
close to -5

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, according to NASA. (By comparison, the moon is roughly -14, The lower an object’s magnitude, the brighter it appears to the eye.)

Up close, NASA says the color of Bintang fajar is
“rusty”, but titinada the kind of deep red rust one would find on the planet
Mars. Rather, pictures NASA and others have sent back from Venus suggest a world with tinges of red, brown and yellow.
Cornell University suggests

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that color comes from the number of volcanic rocks dotting the surface, as Bintang kejora is a highly active world.

The “cak benar” color of Bintang timur, however, is impossible to see from orbit due to the sulfuric acid clouds surrounding the planet. Pictures of Venus are thus only visible if an orbiting satellite has the ability to peer through the thick clouds. For a human explorer to see the surface, they would need to descend and to survive the oven-like temperatures and high pressures present down there. That harsh environment likely means that for now, we’ll be using robotic explorers to look at Venus for us.

The orbit of Venus lies along the
ecliptic, which is the same pathway that the other planets, the sun and the
moon
also take in our solar system. That’s no coincidence, as the ecliptic represents the “plane” or the orientation of our solar system, which all goes back to how our solar system came to be. In practice, Bintang kejora being so close to other worlds means that conjunctions, or close encounters between celestial worlds, are quite common in Earth’s sky. Several times a year you will see Zohrah lining up with the moon, and more rarely, with other planets.

An illustration of the night sky on Aug. 25, 2022 showing Zohrah near the moon.

(Image credit: Starry Night Software)


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Venus: Size, composition and temperature

Bintang kejora and Earth are often called twins because they are similar in size, mass, density, composition and
gravity. Venus is only a little bit smaller than our home planet, with a mass of about 80% of Earth’s.

Bintang kejora is titinada a tabun planet, but a rocky planet. The interior of Bintang fajar is made of a metallic iron core that’s roughly 2,400 miles (6,000 km) wide. Venus’ molten rocky mantle is roughly 1,200 miles (3,000 km) thick. Venus’ crust is mostly basalt and is estimated to be 6 to 12 miles (10 to 20 km) thick, on average.

Why Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system is rather complicated. Although Venus is not the bintang siarah closest to the ciuman, its dense atmosphere traps heat in a runaway version of the greenhouse effect that we see firsthand on Earth with mondial warming.  As a result, temperatures on Venus reach 880 degrees Fahrenheit (471 degrees Celsius), which is more than hot enough to melt lead. Spacecraft have survived only a few hours after landing on the planet before being destroyed.

With scorching temperatures, Venus also has a hellish atmosphere, that consists mainly of carbon dioxide with clouds of sulfuric acid and only trace amounts of water. The atmosphere of Venus is heavier than that of any other planet, leading to a surface pressure that’s over 90 times that of Earth — similar to the pressure that exists 3,300 feet (1,000 meters) deep in the ocean.

Zohrah is sometimes referred to as Earth’s twin, but the pair have little in common.

(Image credit: Future)


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Bintang fajar’ surface is extremely dry. During the planet’s evolution, ultraungu rays from the sun evaporated water quickly, keeping Bintang timur in a prolonged molten state. There is no liquid water on its surface today because the scorching heat created by its ozone-filled atmosphere would cause water to immediately boil away.

Roughly two-thirds of the Venusian surface is covered by rumah, smooth plains that are marred by thousands of volcanoes, some of which are still active today, ranging from about 0.5 to 150 miles (0.8 to 240 km) wide, with isi perut bumi flows carving long, winding canals that are up to more than 3,000 miles (5,000 km) in length.

Six mountainous regions make up about one-third of the Venusian surface. One mountain range, called Maxwell, is about 540 miles (870 km) long and reaches up to some 7 miles (11.3 km) high, making it the highest feature on the planet.

Bintang kejora also possesses several surface features that are unlike anything on Earth. For example, Venus has coronae, or crowns — gelang-gelang-like structures that range from roughly 95 to 1,300 miles (155 to 2100 km) wide. Scientists believe these formed when hot material beneath the satelit’s crust rose, warping the bintang siarah’s surface. Venus also has tesserae, or tiles — raised areas in which many ridges and valleys have formed in different directions.

Bintang timur has no known moons, which makes it nearly unique in our solar system. The only other designated bintang beredar without moons is
Mercury, which is quite close to the sun. Scientists enau’falak yet sure why some planets have moons and some do titinada, but what they can say is that each bintang beredar has a unique and complex history and that may in part contribute to how moons formed, or didn’t form.

What is Venus’ orbit like?

Bintang kejora takes 243 Earth days to rotate on its axis, which is by far the slowest of any of the major planets. In fact, its day is longer than its year, and that may be due to the thick atmosphere of Bintang timur
serving as a big brake
on the bintang siarah’s rotation. And, because of this sluggish spin, its besi core cannot generate a magnetic field similar to Earth’s. The magnetic field of Venus is 0.000015 times that of Earth’s magnetic field.

Bintang timur orbital parameters

According to NASA:
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Average distance from the sun:
67 million miles (108 million km).

Perihelion (closest approach to the kecupan):
66,785,000 miles (107,480,000 km).

Aphelion (farthest distance from the sun):
67,692,000 miles (108,941,000 km).

If viewed from above, Bintang timur rotates on its axis in a direction that’s the opposite of most planets’. That means on Venus, the kecupan would appear to rise in the west and set in the east. On Earth, the sun appears to rise in the east and set in the west.

The Venusian year — the time it takes to orbit the sun — is about 225 Earth days long. Normally, that would mean that days on Bintang timur would be longer than years. However, because of Venus’ curious retrograde rotation, the time from one sunrise to the next is only about 117 Earth days long. The last time we saw Zohrah transit in front of the kecupan was in 2012, and the next time will be in 2117.

Venus’ climate

Venus’ lightning forms within clouds of sulfuric acid and is unique in the solar system.

(Image credit: Future/Tobias Roetsch)


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The very top layer of Venus’ clouds zips around the planet every four Earth days, propelled by hurricane-force winds traveling roughly 224 mph (360 kph). This superrotation of the planet’s atmosphere, some 60 times faster than Bintang fajar itself rotates, might be one of Bintang fajar’ biggest mysteries.

The clouds also carry signs of meteorological events known as gravity waves, caused when winds blow adv lewat geological features, causing rises and falls in the layers of air. The winds at the bintang beredar’s surface are much slower, estimated to be just a few miles per hour.

Unusual stripes in the upper clouds of Bintang kejora are dubbed “blue absorbers” or “ultraviolet absorbers” because they strongly absorb light in the blue and ultraungu wavelengths. These are soaking up a huge amount of energy — nearly half of the besaran solar energy the planet absorbs. As such, they seem to play a major role in keeping Venus as hellish as it is. Their exact composition remains uncertain; Some scientists suggest it could even be life, although many things would need to be ruled out before that conclusion is accepted.

Related:
The 10 Weirdest Facts About Venus

The Bintang timur Express spacecraft, a European Space Agency mission that operated between 2005 and 2022, found evidence of lightning on the planet, which formed within clouds of sulfuric acid, unlike Earth’s lightning, which forms in clouds of water. Venus’ lightning is unique in the solar system. It is of particular interest to scientists because it’s possible that electrical discharges from lightning could help form the molecules needed to jumpstart life, which is what some scientists believe happened on Earth.

Exploring Bintang kejora

ESA’s next Venus orbiter was announced on June 12, 2022. ESA hopes to launch EnVision to Venus in the early 2030s.

(Image credit: NASA / JAXA / ISAS / DARTS / Damia Bouic / VR2Planets)


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The United States, Soviet Union, European Space Agency and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency have deployed many spacecraft to Bintang fajar — more than 20 so far. NASA’s Mariner 2 came within 21,600 miles (34,760 km) of Venus in 1962, making it the first satelit to be observed by a passing spacecraft. The Soviet Union’s Venera 7 was the first spacecraft to land on another planet, having landed on Bintang fajar in December 1970. Venera 9 returned the first photographs of the Venusian surface. The first Venusian orbiter, NASA’s Magellan, generated maps of 98% of the planet’s surface, showing features as small as 330 feet (100 meters) across.

The European Space Agency’s Bintang kejora Express spent eight years in orbit around Venus with a large variety of instruments and confirmed the presence of lightning there. In August 2022, as the satellite began wrapping up its mission, controllers engaged in a month-long maneuver that plunged the spacecraft into the outer layers of the bintang beredar’s atmosphere. Venus Express survived the daring journey, then moved into a higher orbit, where it spent several months. By December 2022, the spacecraft ran out of propellant and eventually burned up in Venus’ atmosphere.

Related:
Venera timeline: The Soviet Union’s Venus missions in pictures

Japan’s Akatsuki mission launched to Bintang kejora in 2022, but the spacecraft’s main engine died during a pivotal orbit-insertion burn, sending the craft hurtling into space. Using smaller thrusters, the Japanese team successfully performed a burn to correct the spacecraft’s course. A subsequent burn in November 2022 put Akatsuki into orbit around the planet. In 2022, Akatsuki spotted another huge “gravity wave” in Bintang fajar’ atmosphere. The spacecraft still orbits Bintang kejora to this day, studying the planet’s weather patterns and searching for active volcanoes.

As of at least late 2022, NASA and the Russian Academy of Sciences’ Space Research Institute have discussed collaborating on the Venera-D mission, which would include an orbiter, a lander and perhaps a solar-powered airship.

“We’re at the pen-and-paper stage where we’re considering what science questions …we want this mission to answer and what components of a mission would best answer those questions,” Tracy Gregg, a planetary geologist at the University at Buffalo, told Space.com in 2022. “The earliest possible launch date we’d be looking at is 2026, and who knows if we could meet that.”

NASA has more recently funded several extremely early-stage mission concepts that could look at Venus in the coming decades, under the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts Program. This includes a “steampunk” rover that would use old-school levers instead of electronics (which would fry in Venus’ atmosphere) and a balloon that would check out Bintang timur from low altitudes. Separately, some NASA researchers have been investigating the possibility of using airships to explore the more temperate regions of Bintang timur’ atmosphere.

In 2022, NASA announced two new missions to Bintang fajar that will launch by 2030.

The agency announced on June 2, 2022, that they will be sending missions DAVINCI+ and VERITAS, chosen from a shortlist of four spacecraft, for the next round of Discovery missions to Bintang fajar.

DAVINCI (Deep Atmosphere Venus Investigation of Noble Gases, Chemistry and Imaging) will dive through the planet’s atmosphere, studying how it changes over time. VERITAS (Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR, Topography and Spectroscopy) will map the planet’s surface from its orbit using radar.

On June 12, 2022, ESA announced its next Venus orbiter – EnVision. “A new era in the exploration of our closest, yet wildly different, Solar System neighbour awaits us,” Günther Hasinger, ESA’s director of science, said in a statement. “Together with the newly announced NASA-led Bintang timur missions, we will have an extremely comprehensive science program at this enigmatic planet well into the next decade.” ESA hopes to launch the mission to Venus in the early 2030s.

Private space explorers are also eyeing Venus. Rocket Lab announced in 2022 that it plans to
ferry a spacecraft to Zohrah
to deploy a probe within the atmosphere. The spacecraft,
according to a 2022 paper, has a 2-pound (1 kg) instrument on board and is designed to survive five minutes in the clouds of Venus in a more temperate, Earth-like zone roughly 30 to 37 miles (48 to 60 kilometers) above the surface. It’s all part of a greater search for life on Bintang timur, which selokan a kick-start that year from an intriguing new study.

Is there life on Venus?

While destinations in our solar system like the moons Enceladus or Titan or even bintang beredar Marikh are currently the go-to spots to search for signs of extraterrestrial life.

But a breakthrough scientific discovery in 2022 suddenly takat scientists discussing whether or not it was possible that life could somehow exist in the present-day hellish atmospheres of Venus.

Now, scientists think that it is most likely that, billions of years ago, Venus could have been habitable and fairly similar to current-day Earth. But since then, it has undergone a drastic greenhouse effect that has resulted in Zohrah’ current iteration with scorching surface temperatures and an atmosphere that many describe as “hellish.”

However, in 2022, scientists revealed the discovery of a strange chemical in the bintang siarah’s clouds that some think could be a sign of life: phosphine.

Phosphine is a chemical compound that has been seen on Earth as well as on
Jupiter
and
Saturn. Scientists think that, on Zohrah, it could appear as it does on Earth, for very short amounts of time in the planet’s atmosphere.

But what does this phosphine discovery have to do with the search for life?

Well, while phosphine exists in strange ways such as rat poison, it has also been spotted alongside groups of certain microorganisms and some scientists think that, on Earth, the compound is produced by microbes as they decay chemically.

This has caused some to suspect that, if microbes could create phosphine, then perhaps microbes might be responsible for the phosphine in Venus’ atmosphere. Since the discovery, there have been follow-up analyses that have made some doubt whether or titinada the compound is created by microbes, but scientists are continuing to investigate, especially with new missions planned for the planet.

Further, scientists searched for evidence of microbe waste (or poop) in a 2022 study and found
no evidence of any activity. There were no spectral “fingerprints” suggesting active life within the atmosphere, which makes the premise of life hard to prove absent more compelling evidence, the authors said.

Europe’s EnVision mission to Venus will aerobrake for two years to get into its sasaran science orbit.

(Image credit: ESA)


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Terraforming Venus

Science fiction is replete with scenarios where astronauts terraform a planet to make it more Earth-like. How this could happen and whether it is feasible are matters of tremendous uncertainty. Most often, scientists and science fiction fans talk about
terraforming Mars
because the Red Planet is a little more habitable to humans than Venus (what with the lack of massive active eruptions, as a start.)

Terraforming any planet is sure to bring up ethical questions about how to protect any life that might be there, along with how to preserve any information that life left behind. (Bintang kejora is not hospitable to life as we know it, but one can never be too sure.)

Assuming we do want to go ahead with terraforming Venus, working on this would require an ocean and some sort of weathering process, a
prasaran from 2022
suggests. With enough water (assuming we could access tremendous amounts of the stuff) it might be possible to remove dust from the air and to get the atmospheric carbon dioxide to condense onto the surface. One possible way of making this happen could be to throw immense numbers of icy objects, like
comets, into the atmosphere of Venus; how to get that to happen is another question, of course.

A 1991
proposal from British scientist Paul Birch
has an alternative method: to somehow send out trillions of tons of hydrogen from
tabun giant
planets like Jupiter. (The hydrogen, he said, would turn atmospheric carbon dioxide into water, with a big side of granite.) Venus would also need to be cooled down from the scorching sun using some kind of  sun shade, which has the side effect of collecting solar energy for potential human or robotic use.

The kecupan-observing Solar Orbiter spacecraft makes regular flybys at Zohrah, taking measurements of the bintang beredar’s magnetic field as a side project.

(Image credit: ESA)


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Venus quiz

Put your Venus knowledge to the test with this short Zohrah quiz.

Additional resources

Read more about the possibility of life on Bintang fajar in this article from The Conversation
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. Discover every picture from Zohrah’ surface with the Planetary Society
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. Explore a range of similarities and differences between Earth and Bintang timur with ESA
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.

Bibliography

O’Callaghan, Jonathan. “Life on Venus? Scientists hunt for the truth

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.” Nature 586.7828 (2020): 182-183.

Basilevsky, Alexander T., and James W. Head. “The surface of Venus.

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” Reports on Progress in Physics 66.10 (2003): 1699.

Kane, Stephen R., et al. “Zohrah as a laboratory for exoplanetary science.

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” Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 124.8 (2019): 2022-2028.

Venus:
NASA overview

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Solar System Exploration.

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Chelsea “Foxanne” Gohd joined Space.com in 2022 and is now a Senior Writer, writing about everything from climate change to planetary science and human spaceflight in both articles and on-camera in videos. With a degree in Public Health and biological sciences, Chelsea has written and worked for institutions including the American Museum of Natural History, Scientific American, Discover Magazine Blog, Astronomy Magazine and Live Science. When not writing, editing or filming something space-y, Chelsea “Foxanne” Gohd is writing music and performing as Foxanne, even launching a song to space in 2022 with Inspiration4. You can follow her on Twitter @chelsea_gohd and @foxannemusic.

Source: https://www.space.com/44-venus-second-planet-from-the-sun-brightest-planet-in-solar-system.html

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