Durians

The Durian Fruit Durio spp., also known as King of Fruits, is a popular fruit from Southeast Asia that can be either consumed fresh or frozen, or processed to chips, powder, paste, cake, or other products.

From:

Advances in the Study of Behavior
,
2012

Durian—Durio zibethinus

Saichol
Ketsa
, in


Exotic Fruits, 2022

Surface Coating

Durian fruit have high rates of weight loss after harvest (Ketsa and Pangkool, 1994). Therefore, it is imperative to reduce weight loss of durian fruit after harvest. Waxing or surface coating of durian has been reported to increase the resistance of the peel to gas exchange, thus creating modified atmosphere internally to extend fruit life (Tongdee et al., 1990a). Waxing reduces ripening processes, weight loss and dehiscence.
Añabesa et al. (2006)
reported a delay of dehiscence in durian fruit after waxing, which prevented water loss.

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Durian (Durio zibethinus Merr.)

Jingtair
Siriphanich
, in


Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Cocona to Mango, 2022

5.10.4

Durian paste

Durian paste is the most widely made processed durian across South-East Asia. This product is made from fully ripe durian aril, mixed with sugar and coconut milk or with sugar alone, stirred over a low heat berayun-ayun thickened. The product can be stored for a long time in a sealed metal container. For retail packages it is often packed in clear plastic tubes (Plate IX
F). It may be consumed directly as dessert or used as a stuffing in Chinese moon cake (Maneepun
et al., 1994; Paweenakarn
et al., 1992
).

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Postharvest quality properties of potential tropical fruits related to their unique structural characters

Chalermchai
Wongs-Aree
,
Sompoch
Noichindra
, in


Postharvest Handling (Fourth Edition), 2022

9.2.1.1

Fruit anatomy

Durian, derived from a perfect flower, is a capsule fruit comprising five locules containing several seeds in each locule. It is a climacteric fruit. As the whole fruit ripens, the rind and the flesh behave independently during fruit maturation. In durian, rapid changes in the pericarp rind shorten the storage life of the fruit. Durian husk (pericarp), pulp, and seeds are anatomically connected only at the fruit placenta (Figs. 9.2C and 9.3A). The
ripening of durian fruit is associated with its respiration and endogenous ethylene production rates. The ethylene production and respiration rates of durian pulp during ripening are much lower than those from the husk (Brooncherm & Siriphanich, 1991; Chayprasat, 1993). ACC oxidase, the last step of ethylene biosynthesis, is a rate-limiting step of the ethylene production in the husk, which is crucial for whole fruit ripening (Amornputti, Ketsa, & van Doorn, 2022). Ethylene from the husk thus is required for stereotip ripening of the fruit and aril. High endogenous ethylene levels in durian husk induce the biological process of fruit ripening, including a disorder of husk dehiscence. Unlike the whole fruit, fresh-cut durian needs to reach a suitable maturity before husk removal. Due to the low level of ethylene biosynthesis, ready-to-eat durian bubur kertas removed from the husk often fails to ripen normally (Boonthanakorn, Daud, Aontee, & Wongs-Aree, 2022). Since the bubur kertas is developed from the twisted overlap of several layers of aril (Fig. 9.3B), the aril bubur kertas can ripen unevenly.


Figure 9.3.
Visual appearance of the edible aril of durian derived from ovule placenta (A) and development of aril individually wrapped of the seed as twisted edible parts (pointing arrow) (B).



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Postharvest Physiology and Quality Maintenance of Tropical Fruits

Chalermchai
Wongs-Aree
,
Sompoch
Noichinda
, in


Postharvest Handling (Third Edition), 2022

Durian

Durian rind (husk), pulp and seeds are anatomically connected only at the fruit placenta. Most ethylene production from the fruit is related to the husk, which is
derived from the ovary wall, whereas the pulp produces only small amounts (Siriphanich, 1996). When durian pulp is removed from the fruit, it exhibits low respiration and ethylene production rates compared to the husk (Brooncherm and Siriphanich, 1991) which contains high activities of ethylene biosynthetic enzymes. ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) activities in both the husk and pulp increase as the fruit ripens with ACS activity in the husk being higher than that in the bubur kertas (Chaiprasart and Siriphanich, 2000). High endogenous ethylene levels in durian husk induces the biological process of husk dehiscence during fruit ripening. Conversely, ready-to-eat durian pulp usually encounters the problem of failure to properly ripen or uneven ripening, due mainly to the very low levels of ethylene produced by the aril. Furthermore, the pulp is developed from the overlap of several layers of aril, which could result in different physiological inductions between each overlapped layer, responsible for unharmonized ripening of aril pulp which is similar to different maturities between the segments of mangosteen and longkong fruits.

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Fruits of Tropical Climates: Biodiversity and Dietary Importance

R.
Bhat
,
G.
Paliyath
, in


Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2022

Durian (Family: Bombacaceae;
Durio
species;
Durio zibethinus)

The durian plant is a native of the Malay Peninsula but is widely cultivated in Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia, too. Durian fruits are seasonal and are popular as the ‘king of fruits.’ A matured tree bears fruit after 5–7 years of planting the seed, and fruits hung on a peduncle, which is firmly attached to the trunk and branch. The fruit is oblong to round-shaped, with the outer skin being light-green to brown in color (weighs between 1 and 3
 
kg, 15–16
 
cm in diameter, and 30–32
 
cm long). The yield per tree of durian is in the range of 15–800 fruits/season.

The fruit skin is covered with 1–2
 
cm long thick hexagonal spines and is very hard (55–66%). The edible part or aril is 22–30% encompassing big seeds (12–15%). Owing to a short shelf life, efforts are being made to commercialize durian flesh to convert into fruit powder. Even though farm varieties are popular, some of the wild cultivars (e.g.,
D.
kesudinarum
and
D.
grandiflorus) are also known to produce edible fruits, but these are less preferred owing to poor quality and taste. The durian fruit gets its popularity based on the distinctive odor, aroma, and taste.

Durian fruits are high in nutrition and bioactive compounds. The fruit pulp is a good source of protein, lipids, ash, fiber, and carbohydrates/sugars. Fatty acids contain the methyl esters of myristic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, 10-octadecenoic acid, palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid.

Today, attempts are being made to prepare bakery products with durian flavor using the fruit powder. Novel bakery products such as jam, candy, ice cream, juice, and fruit shake are also being attempted. The fruit bubur kertas is consumed directly or eaten with sticky rice. In bestelan to retain the characteristic organoleptic qualities, in some countries, overripened fruits are fermented with salt or sugar to produce ‘tempoyak’ (acid-fermented durian) or ‘lempok.’ Jenang, a traditional sweet dish, is also prepared by cooking durian pulp with sugar. Some of the other traditional products like ‘kuan’ (pulp cooked with flour and sugar) are also prepared using durian fruit.

With regard to unripe or partially ripe fruits, they are boiled and consumed as vegetable, used to prepare soup, and converted into fruit bars or leathers. Reports are available wherein durian fruits have shown antiproliferative activities. Water-soluble polysaccharides from rinds of durian have been reported to have pharmaceutical value. The use of the durian fruit as a therapeutic agent to reduce cholesterol, in treatment of cardiovascular diseases, and as an antioxidant to prevent oxidative stress, obesity, and diabetic mellitus is also reported.

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Durio zibethinus (Durian)

Abdalbasit Adam
Mariod
, …
Ismail
Hussein
, in


Unconventional Oilseeds and Oil Sources, 2022

Abstract

The durian, “King of fruit” is one of the most controversial tropical fruit. Vivid and delightful descriptions of the strong aroma, both enthusiasts and opponents add a mystery to the fruit in the western world. This review paper focuses the current knowledge about the
Durio zibethinus
species and its applications and usage in the nowadays industries and highlighting the extracted essential oils that is important for human health. Researches have shown that there is an increasing commercial demand for durian fruits due to their wide applicability in medical fields, food industry, and in building houses. Therefore, studies are needed to fully exploit this species. The oil extracted from this tree has shown to be of a good usage to the human health. Investigations reviewed in this paper show that oleic and palmitic acids were the main components in all parts of fruits from the spring harvest as well as in the arillus and seed of fruits from the summer harvest. In addition, palmitoleic, stearic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were present in higher concentrations.

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Enzymatic browning and its amelioration in fresh-cut tropical fruits

Sarana Rose
Sommano
, …
Wilawan
Kumpoun
, in


Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables, 2022

3.1.8

Durian

In Thailand, the optimum ripe stage of durian is usually 3–7
 
days after harvest, depending on the varieties (Charoenkiatkul, Thiyajai, & Judprasong, 2022). After cleaning, durian husk is carefully cut along the rind by knife. Durian pods, usually firm textured and creamy colored, are removed. Selected pods of similar size (~
 
300–350
 
g) are placed in a plastic box with lid or on a Styrofoam tray and wrapped with cling wrap. Fresh-cut durian is stored at ambient temperature or refrigerated conditions (0–4°C) (Voon et al., 2006) (Fig. 7).

Fig. 7


Fig. 7.
Example of cutting style and fresh-cut packaging of durian.



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Synthesis of eco-friendly graphene from agricultural wastes

Rajendran
Rajakumari
, …
Nandakumar
Kalarikkal
, in


Agri-Waste and Microbes for Production of Sustainable Nanomaterials, 2022

3.2

Durian rind and sugarcane bagasse

In a study, they have utilized durian rind and sugarcane bagasse for synthesizing reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The process they have adapted was lemak-friendly, novel, simple and cost effective technology. They found the rGO synthesized from durian rind was very effective in removing the toxic dye for about 32% which was good as the commercially synthesized one. This rGO could also be incorporated into filters for removing metal ions and dyes. They have coated this rGO oper the filter paper and found that it could able to remove more than 95% of methylene blue and copper (II) ions. It was also packed into a syringe as a column filter and it removes about 100% of both methylene blue and copper (II) ions very effectively (across six cycles). It is so clear to observe that the rGO synthesized using durian rind and sugarcane bagasse was very effective as filters for the removal of dye and metal ions in water (Yu and Le, 2022).

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FERMENTED FOODS | Fermentations of the Far East

Indrawati
Gandjar
, in


Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology, 1999

Indonesian Tempoyak

Tempoyak is a fermented food made from the pulp of the durian fruit (Durio zibethinus). It is creamy, like butter, yellow-white in colour, and has a strong smell of hydrogen sulphide. Tempoyak is popular in Malaysia and in Indonesia, chiefly on the islands of Sumatra and Kalimentan, where good-quality durian fruits are available in large amounts.

Tempoyak is prepared by placing the durian pulp in jars, to which salt is added and carefully mixed. The jars are then tightly closed and kept at room temperature for 4–7 days, during which period spontaneous fermentation takes place. The finished tempoyak is sour and salty, sour being the dominant taste. In certain parts of Sumatra the salted pulp is placed in bamboo stems which are then covered with banana leaves, and after the tempoyak is taken out the bamboo stems are used for the next batch. Tempoyak is sometimes used to improve the appetite of convalescent patients.

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Feijoa (Acca sellowiana [Berg] Burret)

W.C.
Schotsmans
, …
A.B.
Woolf
, in


Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Cocona to Mango, 2022


Plate IX.
(Chapter 5) (a) a cross section of a ripe Monthong durian fruit showing air space between the aril and the husk (notice that most seeds are aborted); (b) checking durian maturity by determining dry matter of the aril using a microwave oven; (c), a chilling injury symptom on durian husk; (d)
Phytophthora
rot on a durian fruit; (e) a durian dehusking tool; (f) durian paste on display shelf.


(courtesy of S. Seehawong)


Plate X.
(Chapter 6) Ripening index for feijoa fruit (a) seed pulp half white, half clear; (b) all of seed pulp wilayah clear, (c) all of seed pulp area clear, but darkening (greyish); (d) seed pulp is completely brown, (e) seed pulp and flesh are brown. (a)–(b) mature fruit – for fresh consumption; (c) fruit for processing; (d)–(e) late senescence (developed by The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research limited, Mt Albert, New Zealand).




Plate XI.
(Chapter 6) Chilling injury in feijoa. (a) Privat symptoms include vascular browning and pink discoloration of the flesh; (b) external symptoms include longitudinal browning of the skin.




Plate XII.
(Chapter 7) Different stages of fig fruit development, externally and internally.



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